History of Kyokushin
History of Kyokushin
Mas Oyama – founder of Kyokushin Karate-Do (1923 – 1994)
The rapid march across countries and continents of the new style of karate – Kyokushin karate – a consequence and phenomenal achievements of his legendary founder of Mas Oyama and indisputable advantages he founded the school. The name “Kyokushin” embedded deep meaning. Kyoko – means the final limit; Sin – means truth or reality; Kai – means meeting or contact. This system of combat training and psychological, spiritual and moral education of the masters, the “union of absolute truth seekers” in the way of martial arts throwing a decisive challenge to the limits of human capabilities, gained well-deserved popularity.
Thank Mas Oyama in the early 50s crossed the borders of Japan and spread around the world. Thank Kyokushin as “the strongest Karate”, characterized by an athletic, power, and dynamic, real contact fighting style, firmly established in the mid 70s. Already at the first open championship of the world according to the rules of Kyokushin no representatives of other styles, including contact (among them were students of the “King of Kung Fu” Bruce Lee and Thai boxing champion), could not resist the onslaught of Kyokushin fighters …
In the new socio-historical conditions of Mas Oyama Karate implement reforms, which decided overdue to the middle of XX century “cultural-environmental” issue. It was revived Karate as a martial art with the traditional system of spiritual and moral values. As a martial art, Karate Kyokushin dissociated itself from a pure sports, shareware game, contactless styles of karate and gymnastics from exotic wushu. As the traditional system of spiritual and moral education, Kyokushin karate is fundamentally different from other contact sports: full contact, kick boxing, karate-style ol et al., Which are very far from the traditional Eastern spiritual values.
On the basis of the traditional Oyama managed to achieve generalising Japanese karate school, it Chinese and other counterparts, other types of martial arts, to create a modern advanced and constantly updated system of military and psychological preparation. Kyokushin style is not totally individual style. Its essence – in organic synthesis of the best technical and tactical elements of many national styles Far East and Southeast Asia. At the same time, this style has its own peculiarities, which is manifested in power, dynamic principles of warfare, conducted in a very high pace. From the technical, despite the various borrowing, this style has its own face and their own canons.
Kyokushin style presents to his supporters demanding, mastering them requires a serious athletic training and strict discipline. However, despite the cruelty and maximalism, even demands the cultivation of style around the world carried out taking into account the diverse interests of fans of martial arts in the spirit of the democratic ideal “Karate for millions.” Some are attracted to the Kyokushin system of breathing exercises, the other – the methods of physical training, the third – the system of psycho-regulation, the fourth – self-defense, the fifth – the opportunity to engage in manly sport. Adapted techniques allow Kyokushin karate and children, and women, and the elderly. This reduces the amount of load introduced additional restrictions on contact, but saved the most important landmarks in the preparation and characteristic stylistic features. This allows fans to dive into the fascinating world of sports and fitness training, experience the beauty of plastic dynamic style, master the basics of a real self-defense.
Way Mas Oyama was connected with the revival of the highest ideals and achievements of the centuries-old tradition of martial arts of the East. It began at a time when the very preservation of the tradition has been threatened, necessitating selfless selflessly training, passionate spiritual quest, of faith in the true meaning of Budo art. Way Oyama – is the story of a new style for the history of martial arts in the East always appears as the great masters of the history of their disciples and followers, united in the school. The main stages and events Oyama biographies are extremely important for understanding the essence of his reform efforts.
Mas Oyama was born on July 27, 1923 in Korea, near Seoul. With 9 years, since the studies in elementary school, I began to study Chinese kempo and in 1936 received a black belt. In 1938, he moved to Japan, where he enrolled in the Institute of Aviation. At this time, masters judo and became a pupil of Gichin Funakoshi – one of the three masters of Okinawa, which brought karate to Japan. In 1940 he received the 2nd Dan and enters the Takushoku University.
In 1946, Oyama went to the Faculty of Physical Education Waseda University. In a complex and controversial situation of post-war Japan, he did not immediately find its place, but is keenly aware of “cultural-environmental” crisis of the tradition of the Far Eastern martial arts. By the middle of the XX century. after the most famous judo karate styles, degenerating into shareware game types “contactless” sports, gain mass popularity. Specificity of karate as a martial art is being lost, and at the same time under the influence of the ideology of Western sports is tested for strength and spiritual and moral basis of the centuries-old tradition of arts Budo. Oyama seeks to find a source for the revival of traditional karate. Refers to the study of the old way of the samurai, Miyamoto Musashi to biographies, famous master of kendo, visited the two famous writers Eiji Yoshikawa and Shiro Ozaki – connoisseurs of Japanese history, as well as making the first practical step in finding their way, going to exercise in the privacy of the mountain Minobu.
Oyama efforts aimed at reviving Budo karate, karate that is understood not as a sport but as a real martial art, very soon bear fruit. In 1947 he participated in the first All-Japan championship in Kyoto and wins a convincing victory over all rivals, even though controls the degree of contact in the fighting according to the rules of the sports. In the same year he became the owner of 4th dan. Oyama decides to devote his life to karate. In 1948, following the precepts of the old masters, it goes back into the mountains alone to focus on improving technology and strengthening of body and spirit.
On the mountain Kiёdzuma in Chiba Prefecture, as well as its famous predecessors, Oyama passed 18-month exclusively heavy course discipline. He lives an intense spiritual life, studying the works of ancient sages and following the recommendations of the Zen masters in search of enlightenment. According to him, at this time “training more than sleep,” exposing themselves to severe physical tests required of the adept of martial arts. It laid the foundation for a new style of karate and school, dates back to the reality of the Arts of Budo, and thus transformed into a special way of improving human rights. Oyama set out to develop maximum strength, endurance and “killing power” of the body, in order to subsequently establish themselves in Japan to counter the style of “limited” sports karate martial arts now. During the brief but fruitful asceticism in the mountains Oyama lived strictly to develop a regime that often appears in the biography of the master and the doctrine is frivolous disciples:
4:00 am – Climbing. Meditating with closed eyes for 10 minutes. Jogging through the mountains, 2 hours.
7 am – Cooking.
8 am – meal combining breakfast and lunch.
9:00 am – Start training. 10 times to perform a complex of five exercises:
1) to lift 20 times 60-kilogram barbell;
2) push-ups on your toes 20 times;
3) wrung out in front at the hands 20 times;
4) to catch up on the bar 20 times;
5) put on 20 times on the right and justify makiwara.
After each set of breathing exercises to do and immediately proceed to the next complex. After a ten-fold performance of a specified set of vacation until 11.00.
11 am – performance of Kata.
At the same time every day to repeat 100 times any one kata. For example, in the first day of the kick-1, the second kick-2 and so on until you have made all five sets of Pinan, and then do them in reverse order. Do the same with the rest of the kata.
2:00 pm – Weightlifting. Raise 60-pound barbell 20 times, then gradually
to increase the load. Make 1000 push-ups: 200 times on two fingers, 200 times on three fingers, 200 times on four fingers 400 times in five fingers. Before each set to make a short break. Sometimes, for a change in 1000 to do push-ups with their fists with a break after 500.
3:00 pm – Development of techniques sparring;
climbing on a rope;
exercise for the abdominals – 200 times;
5:00 pm – Cooking. Dinner.
6:00 pm – Meditation and bedtime.
In addition to this eloquent document, we note that many of the masters of Kyokushin held daily routine like not a year or two, twenty, thirty years or a lifetime
In 1951, Oyama returned to civilization and to identify opportunities for a person decides to fight with the bull. In all, he spent 52 fights, killing 3 and repulsed bull horns 48. In 1952, at the invitation of the Chicago Oyama Karate Organization visited the United States, where over 11 months held 32 demonstrations and participated in 7 fights with professional wrestlers and boxers, all of which He won. In 1953, he gained widespread popularity in the United States, log horns of a bull in Chicago. The Americans called it “divine fist” or “the Lord’s hand.” A striking landmark in the biography of the master became brilliant victory in the marathon sparring – 300 two-minute bouts of contact with constantly changing contenders (100 fights in a row for 3 days).
In 1954 he opened the first dojo in Tokyo Oyama, where instructors began K. Mizushima and E. Yasuda. He continues to travel to different countries and continents, is involved in numerous fights, demonstrating their outstanding achievements. In 1956 he opened another dojo ryadoms Rikkyo University. By the same instructors joined M. Ishibashi and T. Minamimoto. It was the beginning of Karate dojo, based on the principle of “1,000 days of training for the beginner, 10,000 days – a glimpse of the mystery.” This is indicative of the highest standards of style – Kiokusin Budo karate. The new style has quickly gained the sympathy of many fans of martial arts.
Kyokushin success can be attributed to the fact that in the new conditions of Mas Oyama managed to solve certain problems.
It was revived in karate as a martial art with real contact fighting style. Have justify their mark early exposure Oyama with a Chinese Kempo and Okinawan style of Gichin Funakoshi. However, his subsequent search was designed to overcome the well-known academic Shotokan style and conventions of combat sports. Meeting with the style Goju Ryu allowed to master the respiratory system and power moves, and the Korean tradition – the technique of kicking and jumping elements. During numerous trips to the Far East and South-East Asia and meetings with Chinese and Thai artists was expanded arsenal of flexible methods of warfare. Of fundamental importance for the style Kyokushin acquired theory circle and point. It explains not only the principles of a combination of flexibility and strength, circular and linear movements in a real fight, but the essence of the Zen approach to the phenomenon of “empty consciousness”, which includes everything in terms of their perception, remaining unchanged at its core. While the Kyokushin – synthetic style, it has its own specificity, which is manifested in power, dynamic principles of warfare, his face, his canons.
It is important that the cultivation of a new style, despite maximalism requirements carried out taking into account the diverse needs huge mass of fans of karate. As a result, the school has grown to Mas Oyama an extensive scale of an international organization.
Because the path to the truth in martial arts is a reality only through the struggle, at the eastern views, it becomes the active form of meditation leading to enlightenment.
Kyokushin – pin power style, but Oyama says that “achieving only physical strength is like trying to sculpt a statue of Buddha, without putting soul into this work.” According to him “the way of the warrior is the knowledge of death” and “the main thing that can be learned from the fight, held on the brink of death, is justice, respect and the way.” That is why the school of instructors required by the ordeal to go through to be able to convey to his students the true meaning of martial arts techniques.
System requirements Kyokushin – one of the toughest in the world, which is reflected in the content of examinations for the belt. To date, it established a system consisting of 10 pupils zones – from white to brown (kyu) and 10 workshops (given). Belt Color depth refers to the development of karate. White symbolizes purity and ignorance, blue – the color of the sky at sunrise, yellow – sunrise, green – blown flower, brown – mature, black – wisdom. Gradually, by wearing a long black belt fades, fade and become white again, symbolizing the idea of finding the Zen master “original purity”, “natural naturalness.” It is noteworthy that the founder of the school, awarded on behalf of the international organization Kyokushin only higher red 10th dan, different from other master’s degree in red, preferred to tie their kimonos usual black belt.
Way Kyokushin school student begins not only with discipline, intense workouts conducted at the limit of human capabilities, but also with the need to completely surrender to the spiritual quest in his chosen path. Discipline starts with the threshold dojo as gym martial art – it’s not the usual space for training, and esteemed “a place where looking for a way.” The dojo is not allowed smoking, eating, drinking, swearing, loud, nothing is done without the permission of the instructor. Do not stay in the room in civilian clothes (except for invited persons and teachers). Everyone should have clean clothes and the whole belt, the corresponding degree, and received in the school emblem. Wearing rings, bracelets, chains, etc. during exercise is strictly prohibited. Firmly adhered to the traditional ceremonial and order of relations between the teacher, the older and younger students. For disciplinary violations or neglect in training instructor has the right to apply traditional punishments – push-ups with their fists, until removal from the class.
The severity of etiquette does not mean that everything in the dojo suppressed feelings. Well-organized the dojo – a great place in which the rigor of discipline and control creates the harmony school, which brings together its members and promotes pupils tops learning comprehension of the true meaning of martial arts path.
This meaning is concentrated in the commandments of the oath of the hall (dojo-kun) – one of the historical documents of the school, which was approved by the Honbu (the center of the International Organization of Kyokushin). The traditional oath have chosen the path of Kyokushin in its original form in the branches of the school is known around the world:
We will train our hearts and bodies to achieve solid steadfast spirit.
We will firmly pursue the true meaning of the Martial Way, so that our feelings were always at the ready.
With true zeal, we will strive to cultivate the spirit of self-denial.
We will observe the rules of etiquette, respect for elders, and to abstain from violence.
We will follow our faith and never forget the true virtue of humility.
We will strive for wisdom and strength, not seeking other desires.
All our lives through the study of karate, we will seek to fulfill the true meaning of Kyokushin way.
The ideas embodied in the rules of the oath, deserve a thorough historical, cultural and philosophical comment. We restrict ourselves to only the most necessary remarks.
Education “steadfast spirit” was one of the main goals of the old way of the samurai. Under the constant readiness of feelings in correlation with the “true meaning of the Martial Way” means that this sense is finding Zen “empty” consciousness perfectly (spontaneous) reflects what is happening. Hitting on anything specifically, it is ready for anything. No wonder the Japanese say that “truly ready one who seems to nothing ready.” It is this “Zen readiness” and is meant to rule the oath. The cultivation of the “spirit of self-denial” – the traditional idea of overcoming the fundamental selfishness as the original and the main obstacles to the improvement of man.
The principle of “respect for elders” is directly linked to social and regulatory role of etiquette and ritual, so revered in Confucianism. The requirements of this rule oath meet standards dojo etiquette. They have themselves been associated with abstinence from violence, which is not unique to konfutsiantsva, but is the foundation of Buddhism. However, the very nature of the violence is related hostilities. Because there is a Zen concept of “unintentional violence” that qualifies all the same “empty” consciousness of a warrior. What this means is the ideal? In a situation of self-defense when an unexpected enemy attack violates the “harmony” of the master, he, making wages (spontaneously and in accordance with the measure of the disturbance of his rest), operates without any selfish motives. Like the “wind snatches the tree from the root,” a warrior does not commit violence, but simply restores the “natural justice.” Hence the characteristic traditions of martial arts Zen idea of “spiritual sword” or “sword of justice”. But the principle of refraining from violence is also associated with the ethics of social behavior, a kind of moral code of martial arts. In accordance with the ideals of traditional martial arts master – the defender of the oppressed and wronged, and always ready to make a just retribution. Such masters Oyama called “heroes among heroes.”